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First Aid

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Giardia

GIARDIASIS (PARASITICAL ILLNESS)
CAUSE PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TREATMENT

Parasitical illness contracted from drinking unpurified water.

Drink only potable water.

Boil water for 3 to 5 minutes.

Use approved water purification tablets or filters.

Keep water containers clean.

Abdominal pain.

Weakness and nausea.

Frequent diarrhea and intestinal gas.

Loss of appetite.

Proper hydration with potable water.

Evacuation and prescribed medications.

Hypoxia

HYPOXIA
CAUSE PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TREATMENT

Rapid ascent to high altitudes (above 3,000 to 4,000 meters or 10,000 to 13,000 feet).

Acclimatization.

Slow ascent.

Limited activities.

Long rest periods.

Impaired judgment, perception, and higher mental functions increasing with altitude.

Evacuation to lower altitude.

Acute Mountain Sickness

ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS (AMS)
CAUSE PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TREATMENT

Rapid ascent to high altitudes (2,400 meters or 8,000 feet).

Acclimatization.

Staged and/or graded ascent.

During stops, no strenuous activity and only mild activity with frequent rest periods.

Increased carbohydrate intake (whole grains, vegetables, peas and beans, potatoes, fruits, honey, and refined sugar).

Acetazolamide prescribed by a physician.

Headache and fatigue.

Insomnia, irritability, and depression.

Coughing and shortness of breath.

Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.

Dizziness.

Swelling of the eyes and face.

Stop and rest. Symptoms will normally subside in 3-7 days if victim does not continue to ascend.

Observe for the development of HAPE or HACE.

If symptoms do not disappear, a rapid descent of 150 to 300 meters (500 to 1,000 feet) or greater is necessary.

Re-ascent should take place only after symptoms are resolved.

HAPE

HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE)
CAUSE PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TREATMENT

Rapidly ascending to high altitudes (2,400 meters or 8,000 feet)*.

Usually begins within the first 2-4 days after rapid ascent and generally appears during the second night of sleep at high or higher altitudes.

Fluid accumulation in the lungs.

Acclimatization.

Staged and/or graded ascent.

Sleeping at the lowest altitude possible.

Slow assumption of physical activity.

Protection from the cold.

Wheezing and coughing (possibly with pink sputum).

Gurgling sound in chest.

Difficulty breathing.

Coma.

Death may occur if rapid descent is not initiated.

Rapid evacuation/descent recommended.

Observe for the development of HACE.

Seek qualified medical assistance.

*HAPE, most often does not occur until above 3,500 meters (12,000 feet).

HACE

HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE)
CAUSE PREVENTION SYMPTOMS TREATMENT

Rapidly ascending to high altitudes (2,400 meters or 8,000 feet)*.

Excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain.

Acclimatization.

Staged and/or graded ascent.

Slow assumption of physical activity.

Protection from the cold.

Most severe high altitude illness.

Severe headache, nausea, and vomiting.

Staggering walk/sway.

Confusion, disorientation, and drowsiness.

Coma, usually followed by death.

Immediate evacuation/descent

Seek qualified medical assistance.

*HACE, like HAPE, most often does not occur until above 3,500 meters (12,000 feet).

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